Dr Talat Waseem

FRCS England, FRCS (GenSurg), FACS, MME 
Postdoctoral Fellowship Surgical Research (Harvard),
Chief of Surgery & Allied
Consultant Endocrine Surgeon & Surgical Oncologist,
Shalamar Institute of Health Sciences, Lahore
General Secretary, Pakistan Endocrine & Thyroid Surgeons Association (www.petsa.net)
Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology and Endocrine Surgery.

About Dr. Talat Waseem

Dr Talat Waseem, Chief of Surgery & Allied has been previously trained at Brigham & Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School under Prof Stanley W Ashley, at University College Cork and by legendary Prof Khwaja Muhammad Azim. Other salient mentors include Michael J Zinner, Malcolm Robinson, Edward E Whang, Prof Paul Redmond, Jennifer Smith, Steven Thrush, Harun E Thomas and Sue Downe. Dr. Waseem currently holds a position of Associate Professor of Surgery in Division of Surgical Oncology and Endocrine Surgery at Shalamar Medical & Dental College Lahore. He primarily deals with surgery of cancer and endocrine glands (thyroid, parathyroid and adrenals). He has more than numerous surgical procedures his log which include thyroidectomies, radical neck dissections, pancreatectomies, esophagectomies and many more.

He is Fellow of Royal College of Surgeons England, FRCS GenSurg, Fellow of College of Physicians and Surgeons of Pakistan and Fellow of American College of Surgeons. He has done Postdoctoral Fellowship in Surgical Research from Brigham & Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, USA. He is Masters in Oncoplastic Breast Surgery, UK (Scholar) and Masters in Medical Education. He is current General Secretary of Pakistan Endocrine & Thyroid Surgeons Association and manages peer-reviewed journal, Archives of Surgical Research. Prior to joining Shalamar, Dr. Talat Waseem was Clinical Lecturer at Cork University College and University of Limerick, Ireland. 

  • Division Head, Division of Surgical Oncology and Endocrine Surgery
  • Chair of Surgery & Allied, Shalamar Hospital and Medical College
  • Professor, Department of Surgery, Shalamar Medical and Dental College, Lahore
  • Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal Surgery
  • Cancer Surgery (Especially Breast, Esophagus, Colon, Stomach, Pancreas)
  • Head & Neck and Breast Surgery
  • Routine General Surgical Procedures

Dr Waseem has a longstanding interest and commitment to molecular biology and clinical research and have published around 100 peer reviewed research articles at national and international level, which encompass cancer research, endocrine research and surgical education. Moreover, he currently edits a peer reviewed surgical journal “Archives of Surgical Research” for last 3 years.  In past I have peer reviewed various journals including Surgery, BJS, International Journal of Surgery, and many other journals. His current research focuses on Cancer Research, Surgical Education and role of AI in surgical science, which remain top avenues within biomedical research realm.

Shalamar Medical & Dental College, Lahore

Chief of Surgery & Allied (March 30, 2023- todate)

Associate Professor of Surgery

(General, Oncoplastic Breast, Endocrine Surgery & Surgical Oncology)

21.10.2020 – to date

Shalamar Medical & Dental College, Lahore

Assistant Professor of Surgery

(General, Oncoplastic Breast, Endocrine Surgery & Surgical Oncology)

29.07.2016 – 20.10.20

Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, UK

Masters in Oncoplastic Breast Surgery

 (Ongoing 3-Year Part-Time; 2018-2020, Royal College of Surgeon and Association of Breast Surgery, UK’s approved program), Nottingham Breast Centre/ Worcester Breast Centre/ Norwich Breast Centre.

Shalamar Medical & Dental College, Lahore

Senior Registrar, Surgery

(General, Endocrine & Breast Surgery & Surgical Oncology)

15.07.2013-28.07.16

University College Cork & University of Limerick (Graduate Entry Medical School), Ireland,  Adjunct Clinical Lecturer in Surgery

1-10-2011- 30-06-2012

Prof. Paul Redmond (Lead Endocrine & Breast Surgeon) & Prof. Stuart Walsh (Lead Vascular Surgeon)

South Tipperary General Hospital

(Teaching Affiliate of University of Cork & University of Limerick), Clonmel, Ireland

General & Colorectal Surgery (Registrar)

7-01-2012- 03-07-2012

Mr Peter Murchan, Lead Consultant Colorectal Surgeon; Mr Athar Sheikh FRCSI

2007-2011 Specialty Training General Surgery, Services Institute of Medical Sciences, Lahore (CPSP)

Postdoctoral Fellowship in Surgical Research

BWH-Research Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA

(11-10-2002 to 28-02-2005)

Supervisor: Stanley W Ashley, FACS; Michael J Zinner, FACS; Malcolm Kenneth Robinson, FACS

2020  Masters in Oncoplastic Breast Surgery, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, UK- Scholar

Supervisors: Jerome Perriera, Sue Downe, Jenny Smith, Steven Thrush, Harun E Thomas

2020 Masters in Medical Education (MME), University of Lahore, 2020.

2020 FACS (USA)- Fellow of American College of Surgeons (Fellowship # 3339374)

2016 FRCS (GenSurg) Joint Colleges Specialty Fellowship Board in General Surgery; FRCS (England) Fellowship of Royal College of Surgeons of England (Fellowship No. 9163659)

2012 Fellowship of College of Physicians & Surgeons Pakistan (FCPS), in General Surgery,

2008 MRCS (Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh), Passed Part 1 & 2

2005 Postdoctoral Fellowship in Surgical Research, 2002-2005, Brigham & Women’s Hospital Research Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA) Supervisor: Prof Stanley W Ashley, Malcolm Robinson

2000     Bachelor of Medicine & Bachelor of Surgery (M.B;B.S) Allama Iqbal Medical College, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, 2000

Administrative Appointments/Responsibilities

Department Chair, Surgery & Allied, March 31,2023 to date

Associate Professor of Surgery, SMDC, Lahore

Pakistan Endocrine and Thyroid Surgeons Association

General Secretary, 2017

Society of Surgeons Pakistan, Lahore Chapter

Secretary Publications 2021-todate

  • Currently functioning as General Secretary Pakistan Endocrine and Thyroid Surgeons Association, and Publication Secretary for Society of Surgeon Pakistan (Lahore Chapter)
  • Travel Award & Oral Presentation at Annual Congress of American College of Surgeons 2020
  • Travel Award, 2009 International Symposium on Ghrelin, Tokyo, Japan for three papers.
  • Best Research Paper Award, International Conference on Medical Education (UOL)
  • Travel Award & Oral presentation of research data at American College of Surgeons meeting held at New Orleans, 2004.
  • Travel Award & Poster Presentation, American College of Surgeons, Surgical Forum, 2019
  • Travel Award & Poster of Distinction, American Gastroenterological Association (AGA), Digestive Disease Week, New Orleans, 2004.
  • American College of Surgeons, MD, USA
  • Society of Surgical Oncology, USA
  • British Association of Endocrine and Thyroid Surgeons, UK
  • Society of laparoendoscopic Surgeons (SLS), USA
  • International Society of Computer Aided Surgery
  • American College of Gastroenterology
  • Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of America, USA
  • American Society of Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition, USA
  • Association of Surgical Education (USA)
  • Pakistan Endocrine & Thyroid Surgeons Association PETSA
  • British Association of Endocrine & Thyroid Surgeons BAETS
  • Society of Surgeons Pakistan (Publication Secretary)
  • Society of Oncological Surgery, Pakistan

Peer-Reviewed Articles

1.          Waseem T, Javaid-Ur-Rehman, Sabir N-U-D, Hussain S, Amir E, Arif S. Rare association: Ileocaeco-colic intussusception secondary to mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix in an adult. ANZ J Surg. 2007;77(11). doi:10.1111/j.1445-2197.2007.04303.x

2.          Nabi MS, Waseem T. Pulmonary hydatid disease: what is the optimal surgical strategy? Int J Surg. 2010;8(8):612-616. doi:10.1016/j.ijsu.2010.08.002

3.          Waseem T, Ahmed SZ, Baig H, Ashraf MH, Azim A, Azim KM. Truncal vs Branch Ligation of Inferior Thyroid Arteries in Total Thyroidectomy: Does It Affect Postoperative Hypoparathyroidism? Otolaryngol Neck Surg. 2021;164(4):759-766.

4.          Waseem T, Duxbury M, Ashley SW, Robinson MK. Ghrelin promotes intestinal epithelial cell proliferation through PI3K/Akt pathway and EGFR trans-activation both converging to ERK 1/2 phosphorylation. Peptides. 2014;52:113-121. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2013.11.021

5.          Waseem T, Baig HM, Yasmin R, Khan RA. Twelve Tips for Enhancing Student Learning Experience in the Operating Room. J Shalamar Med Dent Coll. 2022;3(1):132-136.

6.          Safia Zahir A, Talat W, Zaitoon Z. Thyroidectomy, Trunk Ligation, Hypocalcaemia, Inferior thyroid artery, Hypoparathyroidism. Arch Surg reserch. 2021;1(1):1-12.

7.          Jahangeer A, Talat W. Revalidating “Mini Surgical Theater Educational Environment Measure (mini-STEEM)”: Is it a Content Valid Instrument? Medical. Prof Med Publ. 2018;34(3).

8.          Jahangeer A, Hadia B, Zaitoon Z, Talat W. Revalidating “Mini Surgical Theater Educational Environment Measure (mini-STEEM)”: Is it a Content Valid Instrument? Arch Surg Res. 1999;318(7187):837-841.

9.          Waseem T. Postoperative hypocalcaemia is a well-established entity. Surg Compass. 2022;1(01).

10.        Ahmed J, Ashraf MH, Waseem T. Colonic Interposition For Concomitant Corrosive Esophageal And Gastric Esophageal Stricturing.

11.        Maqbool A, Ashraf H, Waseem T. Anatomic Variability and Distribution of Facial Nerve Posing Surgical Challenge in Parotidectomy: Lesson Learnt from 106 Cases. Arch Surg Res. 2021;2(4):24-28.

12.        Waseem T, Zafar Z, Ahmed SZ, Ashraf MH. Preoperative Difficulty Index for Thyroidectomy (PreoDITTM): A Novel, Reliable, Content Valid, and Valuable Tool. Arch Surg Res. 2021;2(4):5-11.

13.        Baig H, Waseem T. Appraisal of Current Guidelines Regarding The Management Of Breast Cancer Using the Appraisal Of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE) Instrument: A Critical Review. Arch Surg Res. 2021;2(3):16-26.

14.        Nousherwani MD, Tariq H, Waseem T. Barriers To Early Presentation Of Symptomatic Breast Cancer In Local Population: A Qualitative Study. Arch Surg Res. 2021;2(3):4-15.

15.        Waseem T, Ahmed SZ, Zahara FT, Ashraf MH, Azim KM. Selecting the Right Plane of Dissection in Thyroidectomy: Along the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve or the Thyroid Capsule? A Retrospective Analysis. Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2022;26(02):e219-e225.

16.        Maryam N, Zafar Z, Hafeez H, Waseem T. Enriching Operating Room Based Student Learning Experience: How should we structure it? Arch Surg Res. Published online 2021.

17.        Azhar H, Hafeez MH, Ahmed SZ. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) versus Traditional Care in Patients Hospitalized for Colorectal Surgery: A Meta-Analysis. Arch Surg Res. 2021;2(4).

18.        Shafiq MM, Kaleem A, Waseem T. Congenital Eventration of Diaphragm Presenting in Adults: A Rare Clinical Scenario. Arch Surg Res. 2021;2(3):66-69.

19.        Akhtar AN, Azhar H, Asad T, Waseem T. Perception and Awareness of Surgical Professionals About Potential Role Of Artificial Intelligence In Surgery: A Survey Analysis. Arch Surg Res. 2021;2(2):3-7.

20.        Waseem T, Zahir S, Zafar Z, Ashraf MH. How to Decide for Drain Placement in Thyroidectomy: Qualitative Exploration to Formulation of a Decision Tree. Arch Surg Res. 1999;318(7187):837-841.

21.        Azhar H, Waseem T, Ashraf H. Artificial Intelligence in Surgical Education and Training: A Systematic.

22.        Waseem  Fatima TA. Educational Learning Theories & Their Implications in Modern Instructional Designs. Heal Prof Educ J. 2021;3(2):25-31.

23.        Waseem T. Technologic advances in robotic surgery. J Coll Physicians Surg Pakistan. 2005;15(9).

24.        Waseem T. RNA interference: A potential revolution in disease therapy. J Coll Physicians Surg Pakistan. 2006;16(7).

25.        Arif S, Waseem T, Ashraf J-U-R. Prognostic predictive value of Mannheim peritonitis index in secondary peritonitis: A prospective study. Pakistan J Med Heal Sci. 2016;10(3).

26.        Nabi MS, Waseem T, Sultan I, Tarif N. A large pulmonary arteriovenous malformation: a classical scenario. Eur J Cardio-thoracic Surg. 2010;37(5). doi:10.1016/j.ejcts.2009.12.003

27.        Waseem T, Javaid-ur-Rehman, Ahmad F, Azam M, Qureshi MA. Role of ghrelin axis in colorectal cancer: A novel association. Peptides. 2008;29(8). doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2008.03.020

28.        Duxbury MS, Ito H, Benoit E, Waseem T, Ashley SW, Whang EE. A novel role for carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 as a determinant of gemcitabine chemoresistance in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer Res. 2004;64(11). doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-0424

29.        Duxbury MS, Ito H, Benoit E, Waseem T, Ashley SW, Whang EE. RNA interference demonstrates a novel role for integrin-linked kinase as a determinant of pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell gemcitabine chemoresistance. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11(9). doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-1510

30.        Waseem T, Azim A, Ashraf MH, Azim KM. Roux-en-Y augmented gastric advancement (RAGA): An alternative technique for concurrent esophageal and pyloric stenosis secondary to corrosive intake. World J Gastrointest Surg. 2016;8(12):766-769.

31.        Arif S, Waseem T, Javaid-ur-Rehman Ashraf D, Ahmad F. Stapled Hemorrhoidectomy; Is It Really Superior To Conventional Hemorrhoidectomy? A Longterm Analysis. Prof Med J. 2016;23(12):1505-1512.

32.        Azim A, Mir F, Waseem T, Azim M K. Non-Alpine Epithelioid Angiosarcoma of Thyroid Gland: A Rare Clinical Scenario. Am J Cancer Case Reports. 2016;4(2):152-155.

33.        Azim A, Altaf R, Waseem T, Ashraf MH, Azim KM. Xanthogranulomatous Cholecystitis Mimicking as Gallbladder Carcinoma:A Caution for Hepatobiliary Surgeon. Am J Cancer Case Reports. 2016;4(2):101-105.

34.        NABI* MS, WASEEM T, al NT et. Intrathoracic Carcinoids: A 7-Year Tertiary Care Level Experience. J Fatima Jinnah Med Coll. 2012;6(3):19-22.

35.        Azim A, Azim A, Waseem T, Azim KM. Kimura’s Disease: A Rare Clinical Entity for A Head & Neck Surgeon. Am J Cancer Case Reports. 2014;2(2):73-78.

36.        Waseem T, Duxbury M, Ito H, et al. Ghrelin ameliorates TNF-a induced anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects and promotes intestinal epithelial restitution. J Am Coll Surg. 2004;199(3):16.

37.        Waseem T, Duxbury MS, Ito H, et al. Ghrelin: a novel humoral mediator of intestinal adaptation. In: Gastroenterology. Vol 126. WB SAUNDERS CO INDEPENDENCE SQUARE WEST CURTIS CENTER, STE 300, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19106-3399 USA; 2004:A136-A136.

38.        Waseem T, Swati W, Sheikh A, Murchan P. Is Laparoscopic Peritoneal Lavage an Acceptable Alternative to Hartmann’s Procedure for Diverticular Perforation? A Systematic Review. J Curr Surg. 2012;2(4-5):133-140.

39.        Ashraf A, Azim A, Azim KM, Waseem T. Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma Presenting as Horner’s Syndrome: A Novel Clinical Presentation. Am J Cancer Case Reports. 2016;4(1):38-43.

40.        Ashraf MH, Azim A, Waseem T, Azim KM. A Rare Salivary Duct Parotid Tumor; Management By Total Conservative Parotidectomy And Free Flap Transfer. Prof Med J. 2016;23(9):1163-1166.

41.        Duxbury MS, Ito H, Benoit E, Waseem T, Ashley SW, Whang EE. Experimental Therapeutics, Molecular Targets, and Chemical Biology-A Novel Role for Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cell Adhesion Molecule 6 as a Determinant of Gemcitabine Chemoresistance in. Cancer Res. 2004;64(11):3987-3993.

42.        Javaid-Ur-Rehman, Waseem T. Intestinal tissue engineering: where do we stand? Surg Today. 2008;38(6):484-486. doi:10.1007/s00595-007-3671-9

43.        Waseem T, Mogensen KM, Lautz DB, Robinson MK. Pathophysiology of obesity: why surgery remains the most effective treatment. Obes Surg. 2007;17(10):1389-1398. doi:10.1007/s11695-007-9220-1

44.        Nabi MS, Waseem T, Tarif N, Chima KK. Pulmonary Hydatid Disease: Capitonnage is mandatory following Cystotomy. Int J Surg. Published online June 2, 2010. doi:10.1016/j.ijsu.2010.05.007

45.        Duxbury MS, Waseem T, Ito H, et al. Ghrelin promotes pancreatic adenocarcinoma cellular proliferation and invasiveness. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;309(2):464-468. Accessed February 3, 2018. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12951072

46.        Hussain Z, Zahid R, Waseem T. Applications of Radiomics in Breast Surgery. Arch Surg Res. 2020;1(3):24-27.

47.        Waseem T. Commentary: Ghrelin’s role in gastrointestinal tract cancer. Surg Oncol. 2009;19(1):e1-e1.

48.        Talat W. Exogenous ghrelin modulates release of proand anti-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated macrophages through distinct signaling pathways. Surgery. 2008;143(3):334-342.

49.        Waseem T, Ashraf MH, Rabbani S, Shoaib H, Khan RA. Evolving role of social networking sites in undergraduate surgical education: student perspective. Pak J Med Heal Sci. 2019;13:894-899.

50.        Ahmed AS, Ahmed SZ, Zaib N, Waseem T. Evolving Management Options for Breast Cancer in Era of Oncoplastic and Reconstructive Breast Surgery: Where Do We Stand? Arch Surg Res. 2020;1(1):59-65.

51.        Jamil F, Farooqi S, Waseem T. Why the Art of Clinician Is Dying? Opinions & Judgements: A Systematic Review. Arch Surg Res. 2020;1(2):58-63.

52.        Waseem T, Azim KM. Preoperative Difficulty Index for Thyroidectomy (PreoDIT): A Novel Preoperative Roadmap. J Am Coll Surg. 2019;229(4):e104.

53.        Arif S, Waseem T. Managing Cognitive Retention of Surgical Graduate with Improved Techniques: Lessons from Cognitive Psychology. Arch Surg Res. 2020;1(2):54-57.

54.        Ashraf H, Shafiq MM, Ahmed SZ, Waseem T. Pre-Operative Parathyroid Gland Localization in Primary Hyperparathyroidism: A Systematic Literature Review. Arch Surg Res. 2020;1(1):41-51.

55.        Waseem T, Azim KM. Preoperative Difficulty Index for Thyroidectomy (PreODIT): A Novel, Reliable, Content Valid, and Valuable Tool. J Am Coll Surg. 2020;231(4):e115-e116.

56.        Waseem T, Munir Baig H, Yasmin R, Ahmad Khan R. Exploring Operating Room-Based Student Learning Experience: Perils & Pitfalls? A Narrative Literature Review. Arch Surg Res. 2020;1(1):38-46.

57.        Zahara FT, Zafar Z, Waseem T, Shoaib H. Quality Assurance Of Online Surgical Learning Process: Development and Validation of Shalamar Online Learning Experience Measure (SOLEM). Arch Surg Res. 2020;1(1):22-32.

58.        Ahmed SZ, Zafar Z, Waseem T, Rafiq F. To Drain or Not to Drain in Thyroidectomy: A Meta-analysis of Outcomes. Arch Surg Res. 2020;1(2):6-17.

59.        Ahmad SZ, Waseem T, Zafar Z, Abid M, Azim KM. Impact of Branch vs. Truncal Ligation of Inferior Thyroid Arteries on Post-Thyroidectomy Hypocalcaemia: A Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials. Arch Surg Res. 2020;1(1):8-17.

60.        Ashraf H, Waseem T. The Rising Need for Endocrine Surgery Fellowship in Pakistan. Arch Surg Res. 2020;1(3):2-4.

61.        Waseem T. Stomach or Colon for Esophageal Replacement? What Prof Haider Thought! Arch Surg Res. 2020;1(3):1-2.

62.        Ahmed AS, Ahmed SZ, Ahmed M, Waseem T. Emerging Trends in Managing Central Breast DCIS in Era of Oncoplastic Surgery: Where Do We Stand? Arch Surg Res. 2020;1(2):20-27.

63.        Waseem T, Ahmad SZ, Zafar Z, Ashraf MH, Azim KM. How to Decide for Drain Placement During Thyroidectomy? Qualitative Exploration to Formulation of a Decision Tree. Arch Surg Res. 2020;1(3):5-11.

64.        Saeed A, Nousherwani MD, Waseem T, Zafar Z, Mehmood Z, Usman J. Impact of Personal Protective Equipment on Surgeon’s Performance during COVID-19 Crisis: Qualitative Exploration of Challenges and Solutions. Arch Surg Res. 2020;1(2):28-35.

65.        Ashraf MH, Azim A, Waseem T, Azim KM. A Rare Salivary Duct Tumor. Prof Med J. 2016;23(09):1163-1166.

66.        Waseem T. Surgical Residency in Pakistan: How to Move Forward? Arch Surg Res. 2021;2(1):3-4.

67.        Azhar H, Waseem T, Ashraf H. Artificial Intelligence in Surgical Education and Training: a Systematic Literature Review. Arch Surg Res. 2021;2(1):58-66.

68.        Jamil F, Waseem T, Azim KM. Hiatal Hernia with Volvulus of Stomach: Classical Scenario. Arch Surg Res. 2021;2(1):73-76.

69.        Ashraf H, Waseem T. Impact of Complacency and Lack of Assertiveness on Interprofessional Surgical & Medical Teams in Health and Social Care. Arch Surg Res. 2021;2(1):37-40.

70.        Ahmad SZ, Zafar Z, Waseem T, Maryam N, Azim KM. Preoperative Use of Lugol’s Iodine in Graves’ Disease- Clearer Surgical Field but No Effect on Outcomes: A Meta-analysis of Controlled Studies. Arch Surg Res. 2021;2(1):6-16.

71.        Nousherwani M, Waseem T, Tariq H, Azim KM. Primary Hyperparathyroidism Presenting with Pancreatic Pseudocyst: An Unusual Presentation. Arch Surg Res. 2021;2(1):70-72.

72.        Ahmed J, Waseem T, Zafar Z, Danish RQ. Quality Assurance Of Operating Room-Based Learning: Development & Validation Of ‘Surgical Operating Room Educational Experience Measure’  For  Medical  Students  (SOREEMST). Arch Surg Res. 2021;2(1):25-33.

73.        Ahmad J, Baig H, Z Z, Waseem T. Revalidating “Mini Surgical Theater Educational Environment Measure (mini-STEEM)”: Is it a Content Valid Instrument?. Archives of Surgical Research, 2(1), 17-24. Arch Surg Res. 2021;2(1):17-24.

74.        Sadia H, Ashraf H, Waseem T. Evolution of Intra-operative Nerve Monitoring as a revolution in Thyroid Surgery: A PRISMA compliant Systematic Review. Arch Surg Res. 2021;2(1):46-57.

75.        Waseem T, Ahmed SZ, Baig H, et al. Exogenous ghrelin modulates release of proand anti-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated macrophages through distinct signaling pathways. Surgery. 2008;143(1):e1-e1. Accessed February 3, 2018. http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00595-007-3671-9